Exploring universal Judaism
An interview with Rabbi Cherki in "Jerusalem Post"
Rabbi Cherki, how would you characterize the Paris school? What were they trying to do, and how did they differ from religious intellectual figures such as Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik or Rabbi Jonathan Sacks?
The Paris school was probing into Jewish identity, and I think they found one. You're correct in assuming that all of the above were intellectual forms of Torah, but there are stark differences. Rabbi Soloveitchik was a Lithuanian and an existentialist thinker, much more Western than Manitou. Manitou was a Kabbalist, not just a romantic, but a true mystic, which led him to aliyah. Rabbi Sacks I see as an apologist, defending religion as a spokesman for a fragile minority.
What I am trying to do is to take part in what Manitou called the "universal stage of Judaism," which he opposed to "cosmopolitanism." The latter is erasing particular identities and being swallowed into the impersonal realm of reason, with concepts such as ethical monotheism, etc.
Universalism means first being deeply rooted in the Land of Israel and in the lessons of the Zionist renewal project, and then actively sharing with other nations what we have learned in our revival. Judaism is not a religious confession, even if in exile that is what we were reduced to. We are a nation, and one that was defined as having a universal message - wa nation of priests', or as Rabbi Yehuda Halevi wrote: "Israel is the heart within the body of nations."
What is our universal message, which differs from other intellectual traditions with universal aspirations?
I could mention a few fundamental points. For instance, Western humanist thought places man at its center, taking cues from Protagoras, who made man the measure of all things. Islam takes the other extreme and demands complete human submission before God. Judaism posits that neither man nor God is the exclusive focal point, but rather the dialogue between man and God. God has not abandoned the world to its devices, and He pursues a partnership with man in his worldly activity and has spoken to man for this purpose.
Another point would be what Kabbalists would call the "Unity of Attributes", meaning the notion that Jewish faith requires believing in a holistic concept of God encompassing all emotions and situations. He is not found in just one attribute such as Christian love or Islamic severity but in a holistic balance of all emotions.
This unity is also the way we view the nations of the world. If each culture is one color, our color would be white light, a color encompassing all cultures and identities. There are countless divergent identities in the world, but one larger truth arises from the totality of them. The Jews were exiled between these nations to ‘gather Holy Sparks,' essential spiritual elements within these identities; and upon returning to the Land of Israel, we are reassembling the full human profile here, uniting humanity into a greater picture. This is monotheism in a true, integral sense. The Zionist enterprise is the return of the Shechinah, the divine presence, to Zion, creating a new spiritual mode in the world. This is the sense in which Zionism has its full theological meaning.
What are you trying to do with your newly translated book? Who is the audience?
I don't believe in a Homo religiosus, some sort of religious creature that has religious experiences that ordinary humans don't have. This book is an editing of material I wrote years ago, but I think that the questions I ask are questions that can trouble any thinking person. I briefly highlight many paths that are worth thinking about, and one can decide to pursue and develop any of them. The mostly secular hi-tech crowd are entrepreneurial by nature and can try directions that the religious crowd might not have fully developed yet. Organized religion may be declining nowadays, but people are definitely searching for meaning and have a thirst for spirituality, even if they can't quench it in religion as of yet.
What does the title of the book, "Holiness and Nature," mean?
Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook's concept of ‘holiness within nature' means the following: Torah is a central conduit for holiness, but not an exclusive one. There is holiness in nature as well. Historically, Torah was suspicious of nature and natural instincts, which were associated with paganism and sin. That's what Nietzsche meant when he claimed religion was slave morality that beat the human spirit into submission. The rise of secularism in the Jewish people was the turning point. Secular Jews, with their free and natural approach to the world, are instinctively demanding the holiness in nature and refuse to suffice in traditional holiness, 'holiness that is against nature'.
Nietzsche's Übermensch solution was, of course, a disaster. What Rabbi Kook wanted was an eventual reconciliation between tradition and nature, which he believed Jews could only have in the Land of Israel. This would be a religious modality full of vitality, joie de vivre, shedding the dark and dreary nature of Judaism in exile. As the sages said: "In this world I have given you Torah, but in the end of days I will give you Life".
Beyond your usual lecturing activities, you have two unique projects you founded - the Academy for Studying the Wisdom of Faith, and the Brit Olam World Center for Noahides. What are these projects?
The academy is a study program for outstanding students and people with a proven record of public activity. My vision is to create the beginning of an intellectual elite the State of Israel is worthy of. Note the name: "Wisdom of Faith." Many people think that faith and intellectualism are negatively correlated. They are sure that religion is folklore, and the serious values of society are determined at the Israel Democracy Institute, Supreme Court, etc. We think otherwise. I believe rabbis should have a rich intellectual world, and I urge them as well to come learn with us.
My project with Noahides is to spread belief in the Seven Noahide Commandments, which the Torah says are incumbent upon gentiles. I believe them to mean not just the seven very basic commandments [prohibition of murder, sexual immorality, idolatry, blasphemy, theft, eating flesh of a live animal and the commandment to establish courts of law] but establishing gentile spirituality as a form of "satellite religions" to Judaism.
I composed a prayerbook for gentiles titled Brit Olam, which has been translated into five languages, and a religious legal codex called Brit Shalom, which has been translated into 16 languages. We have a website for Noahides, and we are in constant contact with thousands of our followers and their communities across the globe. We want them to have their own local community leaders. For instance, recently we have developed a relationship with a priest in Congo who has left Christianity and taken his congregation to Noahidism. I will eventually go there to meet them. We are planning a world Noahide Conference in Prague.
How would you explain to a culturally insular religious Jew that God takes interest in gentiles?
God is not the dean of a yeshiva or leader of some Jewish community. He created the entire world and placed Jews and gentiles together in this world, so apparently there must be a joint plan for us all, even if everyone has their singular role.
Many associate Rabbi Kook's teachings with nationalism rather than universalism.
They're simply mistaken. Any reader can see with his own eyes that Rav Kook has countless passages with universalist themes, and even Jewish nationalism itself has an end goal that is universal.
What does your book have to say to the Jews in the Diaspora?
I want them to know that Judaism has its own independent spiritual and intellectual path, and that this path is relevant to their life, and it is intrinsically bound to the Zionist project. Many Jews speak of stagnation in the rabbinical world, and I want them to know if they search seriously for spiritual rejuvenation in Judaism, they will find it.